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College of Engineering and Computing

Faculty and Staff

Krishna Mandal

Title: Professor, Electrical Engineering
Department: Electrical Engineering
College of Engineering and Computing
Email: mandalk@cec.sc.edu
Phone: 803-777-2722
Office:

Swearingen
Room 3A38
301 Main Street
Columbia, SC 29208

Professor Krishna Mandal

Research Interests

  • Crystal growth of compound semiconductors, scintillators, and alloy materials for x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron detectors for nuclear material monitoring, non-destructive testing, medical imaging, and high-energy astrophysics applications
  • Materials characterization, device fabrication and testing, deep-level defect analysis, front-end readout electronics & instrumentation
  • Applications of artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) algorithms in radiation detection systems for robust, high-performance measurements and analysis
  • High-efficiency heterojunction thin film solar cells (CIGS, CdTe, CZTS, Sb2S3, DSSC etc.)
  • THz sources, sensing, and imaging applications
  • 2D-materials and nanomaterials

Education and Training

  • 1990-1994: Post-Doctoral Fellow and Research Associate: Materials Engineering Department, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Canada
  • 1989-1990: Condensed Matter Physics Division, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris-91128, France
  • 1987-1989: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai 400 005, India
  • 1988: Ph.D., Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur-721302, India

Books/Book Chapters

  • S. Das, R. N. Bhattacharya, and K. C. Mandal, "Springer Series in Materials Science: Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells," Vol. 218, pp. 25-74, Chapter 2: Earth-Abundant Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) Solar Cells; ISBN: 978-3-319-20330-0, 2015.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Towhid A. Chowdhury, Cihan Oner, and Frank H. Ruddy, “Design and Response Testing of Boron-Diffused Silicon Carbide Neutron Detectors for Dosimetry and Monitoring Applications,” Reactor Dosimetry, Selected Tech. Papers, 1608, p.353-360, 2018.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri and Krishna C. Mandal, “Radiation Detection Using n-Type 4H-SiC Epitaxial Layer Surface Barrier Detectors,” In: K. Iniewski (eds) Advanced Materials for Radiation Detection. Springer, Cham., Chapter 9, pp. 183-210, 2021. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-76461-6_9.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri and Krishna C. Mandal, “Room-Temperature Radiation Detectors Based on Large-Volume CdZnTe Single Crystals,” In: K. Iniewski (eds) Advanced Materials for Radiation Detection. Springer, Cham., Chapter 10, pp. 211-234, 2021. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-76461-6_10.

Patents

  • Autonomous Gamma, X-Ray, and Particle Detector, US 9,606,245 B1 (2017) & US 9,835,737 B1 (2017)
  • Schottky barrier detection devices having a 4H-SiC n-type epitaxial layer, US 9,515,211 B2 (2016)
  • GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection, US 2009/0001277 (2009)

Courses Taught

  • ELCT 101 - Electrical and Electronics Engineering
  • ELCT 363 - Introduction to Microelectronics
  • ELCT 510 - Photovoltaic Materials and Devices (Initiated/developed for EE)
  • ELCT 566 - Semiconductor Optoelectronics
  • ELCT 871 - Advances in Semiconductor Devices (Initiated/developed for EE - Solar Cells and Radiation Detectors sections)
  • ELCT 874 - Advanced Semiconductor Materials (Initiated/developed for EE)
  • ENCP 798 - Advanced Photovoltaics (Initiated/developed for IGERT Graduate Students)

Appointments

  • 2019- Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina (USC), Columbia, SC 29208, USA
  • 2009-2018: Associate Professor (Tenured), Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina (USC), Columbia, SC 29208, USA
  • 2006-2009: Director, Solid-State Sensor Division, EIC Laboratories, Inc., Norwood, MA 02062, USA
  • 1998-2006: Senior Scientist, EIC Laboratories, Inc., Norwood, MA 02062, USA
  • 1997-1998: Staff Scientist, Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., Watertown, MA 02172, USA
  • 1994-1997: Scientist, Electronic Materials Division, Noranda Advanced Materials, Noranda Inc., Montreal, QC H4R 2P1, Canada

Honors/Awards/Accomplishments

  • IEEE Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector (RTSD) Scientist Award, IEEE NSS/MIC/RTSD Symposium, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 13, 2018.
  • Research Progress Award, College of Engineering and Computing (CEC), University of South Carolina (UofSC), 2015
  • DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Young Faculty Award (YFA), 2010
  • University of South Carolina (UofSC) Featured Scholar, 2013
  • Hind Ratan Award, NRI Welfare Society of India, 2013
  • Keynote, Plenary, and Invited Speaker in Several (>35) International Conferences Including IEEE, SPIE, MRS, ICOOPMA, ECS, and ACS
  • Associate Editor: (i) IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (2015 – 2020); (ii) Journal of Electronic Materials (TMS, IEEE) 2015 – 2020); Editorial Advisory Board Member of the Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems (JNMES)
  • Senior Member of IEEE and SPIE
  • Advisor for 5 Postdoctoral Fellows, 14 Ph.D. Dissertations, 9 MS/ME, and 21 Undergraduate research students.
  • Recipient of >35 current/past major research grants as Principal Investigator (PI) from DOE, DOE-NEUP, DOD (Air Force, DARPA, Navy, MDA, ARO), NASA, NSF, NIH, NIST, NSERC-Canada, 3M, DuPont

Representative Publications (Selected)

  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Joshua W. Kleppinger, OmerFaruk Karadavut, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Behavioral Contrast of Electron and Hole Transport in High Resolution CVD Diamond Detectors: A Biparametric Correlation Study,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, 42(2), 200-203, 2021.
  • Joshua W. Kleppinger, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Utpal N. Roy, Ralph B. James, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Growth of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te1-ySey Single Crystals for Room Temperature Gamma-Ray Detection,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 68, 2429-2434, Sept 2021.
  • Joshua W. Kleppinger, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, OmerFaruk Karadavut, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Role of deep levels and barrier height lowering in current-flow mechanism in 150 µm thick epitaxial n-type 4H-SiC Schottky barrier radiation detectors," Applied Physics Letters, 119, 063502-1-6, 2021.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, OmerFaruk Karadavut, Joshua W. Kleppinger, and Krishna C. Mandal, "High-resolution radiation detection using Ni/SiO2/n-4H-SiC vertical metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Journal of Applied Physics, 130, 074501-1-9, 2021.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Joshua W. Kleppinger, OmerFaruk Karadavut, Ritwik Nag, and Krishna C. Mandal, "Quaternary Semiconductor Cd1-xZnxTe1-ySey  for High-Resolution, Room-Temperature Gamma-Ray Detection, Crystals, 11, 827, 23 pages, 2021. 
  • Joshua W. Kleppinger, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, OmerFaruk Karadavut, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Defect characterization and charge transport measurements in high-resolution Ni/n-4H-SiC Schottky barrier radiation detectors fabricated on 250 µm epitaxial layers,” Journal of Applied Physics, 129, 244501-1-10, 2021. 
  • Ritwik Nag, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Joshua W. Kleppinger, OmerFaruk Karadavut, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Characterization of vertical Bridgman grown Cd0.9Zn0.1Te0.97Se0.03 single crystal for room-temperature radiation detection," Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, In Press, 2021.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Joshua W. Kleppinger, Ritwik Nag, Kaushik Roy, Rojina Panta, Forest Agostinelli, Amit Sheth, Utpal N. Roy, Ralph B. James, and Krishna C. Mandal, “A CdZnTeSe gamma spectrometer trained by deep convolutional neural network for radioisotope identification,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 11838, pp. 1183806-1-10, 2021.
  • Joshua W. Kleppinger, Omer F. Karadavut, Ritwik Nag, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, and Krishna C. Mandal, “High-resolution 4H-SiC Schottky barrier detectors on 250 µm epitaxial layers for harsh environment applications,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 11838, pp. 1183816-1-11, 2021.
  • OmerFaruk Karadavut, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Joshua W. Kleppinger, Ritwik Nag, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Observation of minority carrier traps using C-DLTS in Au/SiO2/n-4H-SiC vertical MOS capacitor,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 11838, pp. 1183815-1-8, 2021.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Joshua W. Kleppinger, and Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, “Advances in High‐Resolution Radiation Detection Using 4H-SiC Epitaxial Layer Devices,” Micromachines, 11, 254, 27 pages, 2020.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Mohsin Sajjad, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Pulse-shape analysis in Cd9Zn0.1Te0.98Se0.02 room-temperature radiation detectors,” Applied Physics Letters, 116, 162107-1-6, 2020.
  • Mohsin Sajjad, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Joshua W. Kleppinger, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Growth of large-area Cd9Zn0.1Te single crystals and fabrication of pixelated guard-ring detector for room-temperature γ-ray detection,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 67(8), 1946-1951, Aug 2020.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Mohsin Sajjad, Joshua W. Kleppinger, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Charge transport properties in CdZnTeSe semiconductor room-temperature γ-ray detectors,” Journal of Applied Physics, 127, 245706-1-8, 2020.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Mohsin Sajjad, Joshua W. Kleppinger, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Correlation of Space Charge Limited Current and γ-ray response of CdxZn1-xTe1-ySey Room-Temperature Radiation Detectors,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, 41(9), 1336-1339, 2020 (Editor’s choice article, appeared in the Front Cover Page of EDL Journal).
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Joshua W. Kleppinger, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Radiation detection using fully depleted 50 µm thick Ni/n-4H-SiC epitaxial layer Schottky diodes with ultra-low concentration of Z1⁄2 and EH6⁄7 deep defects,” Journal of Applied Physics, 128(11), 114501-1-9, 2020.
  • Charles R. Schmidtlein, James N. Turner, Michael O. Thompson, Krishna C. Mandal, Ida Häggström, Jiahan Zhang, John L. Humm, David H. Feiglin, and Andrzej Krol, “Initial performance studies of a wearable brain positron emission tomography camera based on autonomous thin-film digital Geiger avalanche photodiode arrays,” Journal of Medical Imaging, 4, 011003-1-13, 2017.
  • Piyas Samanta and Krishna C. Mandal, “Leakage current conduction, hole injection and time-dependent dielectric breakdown of n-4H-SiC MOS capacitors during positive bias temperature stress,” Journal of Applied Physics, 121, 034501-1-13, 2017.
  • Mohammad A. Mannan, Khai V. Nguyen, Rahmi O. Pak, Cihan Oner, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Deep Levels in n-type 4H-Silicon Carbide Epitaxial Layers Investigated by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and Isochronal Annealing Studies,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 63, 1083-1090, 2016.
  • Yanhao Tang, Krishna C. Mandal, John A. McGuire, and Chih Wei Lai, “Layer-dependent Second Harmonic Generation in Reflection from GaSe Atomic Crystals,” Physical Review B, 94, 125302-1-6, 2016.
  • Sandip Das, Raghu N. Bhattacharya, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Performance limiting factors of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 solar cells prepared by thermal evaporation,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 144, 347-351, 2016.
  • Yanhao Tang, Wei Xie, Krishna C. Mandal, John A. McGuire, and C.W. Lai, “Optical and spin polarization dynamics in GaSe nanoslabs,” Physical Review B 91, 195429-1-5, 2015.
  • Khai V. Nguyen, Mohammad A. Mannan, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Improved n-type 4H-SiC Epitaxial Radiation Detectors by Edge Termination,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 62, 3199-3206, 2015.
  • Yanhao Tang, Wei Xie, Krishna C. Mandal, John A. McGuire, and Chih Wei Lai," Exciton spin dynamics in GaSe," Journal of Applied Physics, 118, 113103-1-8, 2015.
  • Yanhao Tang, Wei Xie, Krishna C. Mandal, John A. McGuire, and Chih Wei Lai," Linearly polarized remote-edge luminescence in GaSe nanoslabs," Physical Review Applied, 4, 034008-1-7, 2015.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Khai Nguyen, Rahmi O. Pak, Liviu Matei, Vladimir Buliga, Michael Groza, Arnold Burger, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Large Area Cd9Zn0.1Te Pixelated Detector: Fabrication and Characterization,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 61,793-798, 2014.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Khai V. Nguyen, and Mohammad A. Mannan “Correlation of Deep Levels with Detector Performance in 4H-SiC Epitaxial Schottky Barrier Alpha Detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 61, 2338-2344, 2014.
  • Sandip Das, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Raghu N. Bhattacharya, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Defect levels in Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 solar cells probed by current mode deep level transient spectroscopy, Applied Physics Letters, 104, 192106-1-4, 2014.
  • Mohammad A. Mannan, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Khai V. Nguyen, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Effect of Z1/2, EH5 and Ci1 deep defects on the performance of n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers Schottky detectors: Alpha spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy studies,” Journal of Applied Physics, 115, 224504-1-6, 2014.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Peter G. Muzykov, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, and J. Russell Terry, “Low energy x-ray and g-ray detectors fabricated on n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layer,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 60, 2888-2893, 2013.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Ramesh M. Krishna, Kelvin J. Zavalla, Liviu Matei, Vladimir Buliga, Michael Groza, Arnold Burger, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Cd9Zn0.1Te Crystal Growth and Fabrication of Large Volume Single-Polarity Charge Sensing Gamma Detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 60, 2853-2858, 2013.
  • Sandip Das, Ramesh M. Krishna, Shuguo Ma, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Single phase polycrystalline Cu2ZnSnS4 grown by vertical gradient freeze technique,” Journal of Crystal Growth, 381, 148-152, 2013.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Kelvin J. Zavalla, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Experimental determination of electron-hole pair creation energy in 4H-SiC epitaxial layer: An absolute calibration approach,” Applied Physics Letters, 102, 031109-1-4, 2013.
  • Sandip Das and Krishna C. Mandal, “Optical down-conversion in doped ZnSe:Tb3+ nanocrystals,” Nanoscale, 5, 913-915, 2013.
  • R. M. Krishna, S. K. Chaudhuri, K. J. Zavalla, and K. C. Mandal, “Characterization of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te based virtual Frisch grid detectors for high energy gamma ray detection,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 701, 208-213, 2013.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Kelvin J. Zavalla, Ramesh M. Krishna, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Biparametric analyses of charge trapping in Cd9Zn0.1Te based virtual Frisch grid detectors,” Journal of Applied Physics, 113, 074504-1-6, 2013.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Kelvin J. Zavalla, and Krishna C. Mandal, “High Resolution Alpha Particle Detection Using 4H-SiC Epitaxial Layers: Fabrication, Characterization, and Noise Analysis,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 728, 97-101, 2013.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Peter G. Muzykov, Ramesh M. Krishna, and J. Russell Terry, “Characterization of 4H-SiC epitaxial layers and high resistivity bulk crystals for radiation detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 59, 1591-1596, 2012.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Ramesh M. Krishna, Peter G. Muzykov, and Timothy C. Hayes, “Fabrication and characterization of high barrier Cd9Zn0.1Te Schottky Diodes for high resolution nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 59, 1504-1509, 2012.
  • Peter G. Muzykov, Ramesh M. Krishna, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Temperature dependence of current conduction in semi-insulating 4H-SiC epitaxial layer,” Applied Physics Letters, 100, 032101-1-4, 2012.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Peter G. Muzykov, and J. Russell Terry, “Highly sensitive x-ray detectors in the low-energy range on n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers,” Applied Physics Letters, 101, 051111-1-4, 2012.
  • Peter G. Muzykov, Ramesh M. Krishna, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Characterization of deep levels in n-type and semi-insulating 4H-SiC epitaxial layers by thermally stimulated current spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Physics, 111, 014910-1-7, 2012.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Ramesh M. Krishna, Peter G. Muzykov, Sandip Das, and Tangali S. Sudarshan, “Characterization of Semi-Insulating 4H Silicon Carbide for Radiation Detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 58, 1992-1999, 2011.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Peter Muzykov, Ramesh Krishna, Timothy Hayes, and Tangali S. Sudarshan, “Thermally stimulated current and high temperature resistivity measurements of 4H semi-insulating silicon carbide,” Solid State Communications, 151, 532-535, 2011.
  • Zs. Rak, S. D. Mahanti, N. C. Fernelius, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Doping dependence of electronic and mechanical properties of GaSe1-xTex and Ga1-xInxSe from first principles,” Physical Review B, 82, 155203-1-10, 2010.
  • Zs. Rak, S. D. Mahanti, N. C. Fernelius, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Defect induced rigidity enhancement in layered semiconductors,” Solid State Communications, 150, 1200-1203, 2010.
  • Zs Rak, S. D. Mahanti, N. C. Fernelius, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Theoretical studies of defect states in GaTe,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 21, 015504-1-9, 2009.
  • Zs. Rak, S. D. Mahanti, N. C. Fernelius, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Electronic structure of substitutional defects and vacancies in GaSe,” Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 70, 344-355, 2009.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Sung Hoon Kang, Michael Choi, Jiuan Wei, Lili Zheng, Hui Zhang, Gerald E. Jellison, Michael Groza, and Arnold Burger, “Component Overpressure Growth and Characterization of High-Resistivity CdTe Crystals for Radiation Detectors,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 36, 1013-1020, 2007.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Sung H. Kang, Michael Choi, Alireza Kargar, Mark J. Harrison, Douglas S. McGregor, A. E. Bolotnikov, G. A. Carini, G. C. Camarda, and R. B. James, “Characterization of Low-Defect Cd9Zn0.1Te and CdTe Crystals for High-Performance Frisch Collar Detector,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 54(4), 802-806, 2007.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Sung Hoon Kang, Michael Choi, Job Bello, Lili Zheng, Hui Zhang, Michael Groza, Utpal N. Roy, Arnold Burger, David E. Holcomb, Gomez W. Wright, and Joseph A. Williams, “Simulation, Modeling, and Crystal Growth of Cd9Zn0.1Te for Nuclear Spectrometers,” Journal of Electronic Materials, 35, 1251-1256, 2006.
  • A. Sengupta, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast Electronic Relaxation Dynamics in Layered Iodide Semiconductors: A Comparative Study of Colloidal BiI3 and PbI2 Nano-particles,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 104, 9396-9403, 2000.
  • A. Sengupta, B. Jiang, K. C. Mandal, and J. Z. Zhang, “Ultrafast Electronic Relaxation Dynamics in PbI2 Semiconductor Colloidal Nano-particles: A Femtosecond Transient Absorption Study,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 103, 3128-3137, 1999.
  • O. Savadogo and K. C. Mandal, “Low-cost technique for preparing n-Sb2S3/p-Si Heterojunction Solar Cells,” Applied Physics Letters, 63, 228-230, 1993.
  • K. C. Mandal, O. Ozanam, and J. -N. Chazalviel, “In-situ Infrared Investigations of the Electrochemistry of Heteropolyacids at n-Ge Electrodes,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 336, 153-170, 1992.
  • O. Savadogo and K. C. Mandal, “Improved Schottky Barrier on n-Sb2S3 Films Chemically Deposited with Silicotungstic Acid,” Electronics Letters, 28, 1682-1683, 1992.
  • K. C. Mandal, F. Ozanam, and J. -N. Chazalviel, “In situ infrared evidence for the electrochemical incorporation of hydrogen into Si and Ge,” Applied Physics Letters, 57, 2788-2790, 1990.

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