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College of Engineering and Computing

Faculty and Staff

Krishna Mandal

Title: Professor, Electrical Engineering
College of Engineering and Computing
Email: mandalk@cec.sc.edu
Phone: 803-777-2722
Office:

Swearingen
Room 3A38
301 Main Street
Columbia, SC 29208

Professor Krishna Mandal

Research Interests

  • Earth-Abundant, Low-Cost, Large-Area, High-Efficiency Heterojunction Solar Cells
  • Thin Film Device Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications
  • Crystal Growth of Binary and Ternary Semiconductors and Scintillators for advanced medical imaging devices
  • Solid-State Nuclear Detectors and Front-End Readout Electronics for Homeland Security; x- and gamma-ray detection & imaging; nonproliferation; material protection, control, and accounting program
  • THz Sensors and Detectors for Detection and Imaging
  • Diode-pumped Solid-State Mid- and LW-IR Laser Sources for Remote Sensing in the Vibrational Fingerprints; Thermal Scene Illumination; and IR Spectroscopy in Clinical and Diagnostic Analysis

Education

  • 1990-1994: Post Doctoral Fellow and Research Associate, Materials Engineering Department, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Canada
  • 1989-1990: Condensed Matter Physics Division, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris-91128, France
  • 1987-1989: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Homi Bhaba Road, Mumbai 400 005, India
  • 1988: Ph. D., Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur-721302, India
  • 1985-1986: Research Associate, School of Energy Studies, Department of Electronics and Tele-Communication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700032, India

Representative Publications (Selected)

  • Krishna C. Mandal, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Khai V. Nguyen, and Mohammad A. Mannan “Correlation of Deep Levels with Detector Performance in 4H-SiC Epitaxial Schottky Barrier Alpha Detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 61, 2338-2344, 2014.
  • Mohammad A. Mannan, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Khai V. Nguyen, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Effect of Z1/2, EH5 and Ci1 deep defects on the performance of n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers Schottky detectors: Alpha spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy studies,” Journal of Applied Physics, 115, 224504-1-6, 2014.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Peter G. Muzykov, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, and J. Russell Terry, “Low energy x-ray and gamma ray detectors fabricated on n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layer,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 60, 2888-2893, 2013.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Kelvin J. Zavalla, and Krishna C. Mandal, “High Resolution Alpha Particle Detection Using 4H-SiC Epitaxial Layers: Fabrication, Characterization, and Noise Analysis,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 728, 97-101, 2013.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Peter G. Muzykov, and J. Russell Terry, “Highly sensitive X-ray detectors in the low-energy range on n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers,” Applied Physics Letters, 101, 051111-1-4, 2012.
  • Peter G. Muzykov, Ramesh M. Krishna, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Characterization of deep levels in n-type and semi-insulating 4H-SiC epitaxial layers by thermally stimulated current spectroscopy,” Journal of Applied Physics, 111, 014910-1-7, 2012.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Ramesh M. Krishna, Peter G. Muzykov, Sandip Das, and Tangali S. Sudarshan, “Characterization of Semi-Insulating 4H Silicon Carbide for Radiation Detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 58, 1992-1999, 2011.
  • Rahmi O. Pak and Krishna C. Mandal, "Defect Levels in Nuclear Detector Grade Cd0.9Zn0.1Te Crystals," ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 5, P3037-P3040, 2016.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Khai Nguyen, Rahmi O. Pak, Liviu Matei, Vladimir Buliga, Michael Groza, Arnold Burger, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Large Area Cd0.9Zn0.1Te Pixelated Detector: Fabrication and Characterization,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 61,793-798 , 2014.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Kelvin J. Zavalla, Ramesh M. Krishna, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Biparametric analyses of charge trapping in Cd0.9Zn0.1Te  based virtual Frisch grid detectors,” Journal of Applied Physics, 113, 074504-1-6, 2013.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Ramesh M. Krishna, Kelvin J. Zavalla, Liviu Matei, Vladimir Buliga, Michael Groza, Arnold Burger, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Cd0.9Zn0.1Te Crystal Growth and Fabrication of Large Volume Single-Polarity Charge Sensing Gamma Detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 60, 2853-2858, 2013.
  • Piyas Samanta and Krishna C. Mandal, "Leakage current conduction, hole injection and time-dependent dielectric breakdown of n-4H-SiC MOS capacitors during positive bias temperature stress," Journal of Applied Physics, 121, 034501-1-13, 2017.
  • Piyas Samanta and Krishna C. Mandal, “Simulation of temperature dependent dielectric breakdown in n+-polySi/SiO2/n-6H-SiC structures during Poole-Frenkel stress at positive gate bias,” Journal of Applied Physics, 120, 064505-1-10, 2016.
  • Piyas Samanta and Krishna C. Mandal, “Hole injection and dielectric breakdown in 6H-SiC and 4H-SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor structures during substrate electron injection via Fowler-Nordheim tunneling,” Solid-State Electronics, 114, 60-68, 2015.
  • Mohammad A. Mannan, Khai V. Nguyen, Rahmi O. Pak, Cihan Oner, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Deep Levels in n-type 4H-Silicon Carbide Epitaxial Layers Investigated by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and Isochronal Annealing Studies,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 63, 1083-1090, 2016.
  • Khai V. Nguyen, Mohammad A. Mannan, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Improved n-type 4H-SiC Epitaxial Radiation Detectors by Edge Termination,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 62, 3199-3206, 2015.
  • Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Kelvin J. Zavalla, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Experimental determination of electron-hole pair creation energy in 4H-SiC epitaxial layer: An absolute calibration approach,” Applied Physics Letters, 102, 031109-1-4, 2013.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Ramesh M. Krishna, P. G. Muzykov, and T. C. Hayes, “Fabrication and characterization of high barrier Cd0.9Zn0.1Te Schottky Diodes for high resolution nuclear radiation detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 59, 1504-1509, 2012.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Sung H. Kang, Michael Choi, Alireza Kargar, Mark J. Harrison, Douglas S. McGregor, A.E. Bolotnikov, G.A. Carini, G.C. Camarda, and R.B. James, “Characterization of Low-Defect Cd0.9Zn0.1Te and CdTe Crystals for High-Performance Frisch Collar Detector,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 54(4), 802-806, 2007.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Sung Hoon Kang, Michael Choi, Job Bello, Lili Zheng, Hui Zhang, Michael Groza, Utpal N. Roy, Arnold Burger, David E. Holcomb, Gomez W. Wright, and Joseph A. Williams, “Simulation, Modeling, and Crystal Growth of Cd0.9Zn0.1Te for Nuclear Spectrometers,” J. Electron. Mater., 35, 1251-1256, 2006.
  • Charles R. Schmidtlein, James N. Turner, Michael O. Thompson, Krishna C. Mandal, Ida Häggström, Jiahan Zhang, John L. Humm, David H. Feiglin, and Andrzej Krol, “Initial performance studies of a wearable brain positron emission tomography camera based on autonomous thin-film digital Geiger avalanche photodiode arrays,” Journal of Medical Imaging (JMI), 4, 011003-1-13, 2017.
  • Eric S. Harmon, Michael O. Thompson, Krishna C. Mandal, Charles R. Schmidtlein, James N. Turner, Jacques Beaumont, Andrzej Krol, “Development of ultrafast detector for advanced time-of-flight brain PET,” Proc. SPIE, 10578, 1057808-1-10, 2018.
  • C. R. Schmidtlein, J. N. Turner, M. O. Thompson, K. C. Mandal, I. Haggstrom, J. Zhang, J. L. Humm, D. H. Feiglin, and A. Krol., “Performance modeling of a wearable brain PET (BET) camera,” Proc. SPIE, 9788, 978806-1-11, 2016.
  • Sandip Das, Raghu N. Bhattacharya, and Krishna C. Mandal, "Performance limiting factors of Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4 solar cells prepared by thermal evaporation," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 144, 347-351, 2016.
  • Sandip Das, Sandeep K. Chaudhuri, Raghu N. Bhattacharya, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Defect levels in Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 solar cells probed by current mode deep level transient spectroscopy, Applied Physics Letters, 104, 192106-1-4, 2014.
  • B. L. Yu, F. Zeng, V. Kartazayev, R. R. Alfano, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Terahertz studies of the dielectric response and second-order phonons in a GaSe crystal,” Applied Physics Letters, 87, 182104-1-3, 2005.
  • Yanhao Tang, Krishna C. Mandal, John A. McGuire, and Chih Wei Lai, “Layer-dependent Second Harmonic Generation in Reflection from GaSe Atomic Crystals,” Physical Review B, 94, 125302-1-6, 2016.
  • Amit C. Das, Sayantan Bhattacharya, Mukesh Jewariya, Shriganesh Prabhu, Krishna C. Mandal, Tsuneyuki Ozaki, and Prasanta K. Datta, "Identification of Combination Phonon Modes in Pure and Doped-GaSe Crystals by THz-Spectroscopy," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics," 23, 8400607-1-7, 2017.
  • Yanhao Tang, Wei Xie, Krishna C. Mandal, John A. McGuire, and C. W. Lai, "Optical and spin polarization dynamics in GaSe nanoslabs," Physical Review B, 91, 195429-1-5, 2015.
  • Yanhao Tang, Wei Xie, Krishna C. Mandal, John A. McGuire, and Chih Wei Lai, "Exciton spin dynamics in GaSe," Journal of Applied Physics, 118, 113103-1113103-8, 2015.
  • Yanhao Tang, Wei Xie, Krishna C. Mandal, John A. McGuire, and Chih Wei Lai," Linearly polarized remote-edge luminescence in GaSe nanoslabs," Physical Review Applied, 4, 034008-1034008-7, 2015.
  • Zs. Rak, S.D. Mahanti, N.C. Fernelius, and Krishna C. Mandal, “Doping dependence of electronic and mechanical properties of GaSe1-xTex and Ga1-xInxSe from first principles,” Zs. Rak, S.D. Mahanti, Krishna C. Mandal, and N.C. Fernelius, Physical Review B, 82, 155203-1-10, 2010.
  • Krishna C. Mandal, Ramesh M. Krishna, Timothy C. Hayes, Peter G. Muzykov, Sandip Das, Tangali S. Sudarshan, and Shuguo Ma, “Layered GaTe Crystals for Radiation Detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 58, 1981-1986, 2011.
  • Sandip Das and Krishna C. Mandal, “Optical down-conversion in doped ZnSe:Tb3+ nanocrystals,” Nanoscale, 5, 913-915, 2013.
  • K. Rademaker, W. F. Krupke, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, K. Peterman, G. Huber, A. P. Yelisseyev, L. I. Isaenko, U. N. Roy, A. Burger, Krishna C. Mandal and K. Nitsch, “Optical Properties of Nd3+- and Tb3+-doped KPb2Br5 and RbPb2Br5 with low nonradiative decay,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 21, 2117-2129, 2004.
  • K. C. Mandal, O. Ozanam, and .J. -N. Chazalviel, “In-situ Infrared Investigations of the Electrochemistry of Heteropolyacids at n-Ge Electrodes,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 336, 153-170, 1992.
  • K. C. Mandal, F. Ozanam, and J. -N. Chazalviel, “In situ infrared evidence for the electrochemical incorporation of hydrogen into Si and Ge,” Applied Physics Letters, 57, 2788-2790, 1990.

Books/Book Chapters

  • S. Das, R. N. Bhattacharya, and K. C. Mandal, "Springer Series in Materials Science: Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells," Vol. 218, pp. 25-74, Chapter 2: Earth-Abundant Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) Solar Cells; ISBN: 978-3-319-20330-0, 2015.

Patents

  • Autonomous Gamma, X-Ray, and Particle Detector, US 9,606,245 B1 (2017) & US 9,835,737 B1 (2017)
  • Schottky barrier detection devices having a 4H-SiC n-type epitaxial layer, US 9,515,211 B2 (2016)
  • GaTe semiconductor for radiation detection, US 2009/0001277 (2009)

Courses Taught

  • ELCT 101 - Electrical and Electronics Engineering
  • ELCT 363 - Introduction to Microelectronics
  • ELCT 510 - Renewable Energy Technologies: Photovoltaic Devices and Systems (Initiated/developed for EE)
  • ELCT 566 - Semiconductor Optoelectronics
  • ELCT 874 - Advanced Semiconductor Materials
  • ENCP 798 - Advanced Photovoltaics (Initiated/developed for Graduate Students)

Appointments

  • 2019- : Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina (USC), Columbia, SC 29208, USA
  • 2009-2018: Associate Professor (Tenured), Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina (USC), Columbia, SC 29208, USA
  • 2006-2009: Director, Solid-State Sensor Division, EIC Laboratories, Inc., Norwood, MA 02062, USA
  • 1998-2006: Senior Scientist, EIC Laboratories, Inc., Norwood, MA 02062, USA
  • 1997-1998: Staff Scientist, Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., Watertown, MA 02172, USA
  • 1994-1997: Scientist, Electronic Materials Division, Noranda Advanced Materials, Noranda Inc., Montreal, QC H4R 2P1, Canada

Honors/Awards

  • 2018 Scientist of the Year Award - IEEE Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector (RTSD) Award, IEEE NSS/MIC/RTSD Symposium, Sydney, Australia, Nov. 13, 2018.
  • Research Progress Award, College of Engineering and Computing (CEC), University of South Carolina (USC), 2015
  • DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Young Faculty Award (YFA) Award, 2010
  • IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship) NSF Program – as a Photovoltaics Thrust Leader ($3.0M)
  • Recipient of >35 current/past research grant awards as Principal Investigator (PI) from DOE, DOE-NEUP, DOD (Air Force, DARPA, Navy, MDA, ARO), NASA, NSF, NIH, NIST, NSERC-Canada, 3M, DuPont
  • Associate Editor, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (TNS), IEEE
  • Associate Editor, Journal of Electronic Materials (JEM), TMS
  • Editorial Advisory Board Member of the Journal of New Materials for Electrochemical Systems (JNMES)
  • Senior Member of IEEE and SPIE
  • University of South Carolina Featured Scholar, 2013
  • ASPIRE-I - as a PI (Advanced Support for Innovative Research Excellence-I), University of South Carolina (USC)
  • Keynote, Plenary, and Invited speaker in Several (>35) International Conferences Including IEEE, SPIE, MRS, ICOOPMA, ECS and ACS

Challenge the conventional. Create the exceptional. No Limits.

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