Jennifer Baker (College of Charleston)Behavioral Science and Virtue Ethics
Oct 2, 3:30pm email for details: email@example.com
Critics of traditional virtue ethics have argued that the approach is insufficiently empirical, and yet, I point out that many crucial elements of the moral psychology necessary to virtue can be found in the contemporary work of behavioral scientists (namely, that it is “our brains” that generate rewards, and that these rewards, along with our goals, are self-generated and depend on ongoing assessments; that we internalize personal rules and become motivated by them; that we experience negative psychological feedback when we act improperly). I try to explain the implications of virtue ethicists developing the approach by deferring to behavioral science rather than to social psychology.
Katja Vogt (Columbia University)Three Euthyphro Problems
The so-called Euthyphro Problem raises the following question: do the gods love the pious because it is pious, or is the pious pious because it is loved by the gods? The traditional reading draws on Divine Command Theory: does God recognize value, or is value created by divine approval? A contemporary version rephrases the problem along similar lines: is value attitude-independent or is it conferred by attitudes? I argue that these approaches obscure the dialogue’s argument by reformulating “the” Euthyphro Problem as if all value had the same metaphysics. According to the Euthyphro, however, there are three kinds of value, exemplified by the good, the god-loved, and the pious. Among these values, the good has priority. This comes into view once we see that there is not one Euthyphro Problem, but three. The Epistemic Euthyphro Problem seeks a measure by which disagreement about the good can be resolved. The Bad Gods Problem asks how the gods can be normative guides, given that they fight and disagree with each other. The Metaphysical Euthyphro Problem, as I call “the” Euthyphro Problem, raises the question of whether a property can at the same time be realist and constitutively involve relational attitudes. On this reconstruction, the Euthyphro is the urtext of metaethics, in ways that go far beyond its common reception. Plato’s three kinds of value accommodate, I argue, many of the intuitions that today we think speak for and against realism, and for and against anti-realism. According to the Euthyphro, realist value is prior, but it is not the only kind of value that orients our actions. There is also anti-realist value such as the god-loved and legal, and realist/anti-realist value such as the pious and the lawful.
Jeanette Bicknell (Independent Scholar)The 'Crack in the Voice' and Joe Turner's Blues
Great art has been created under conditions of immense suffering and
social injustice. What is less clear is how responsively and sensitively
to make sense of and appreciate such art. How do we acknowledge the
suffering that must have gone into making the art, while seeing the
creators as something other than victims of circumstance? How to make
sure that the feelings of pity or compassion we are likely to have for
those who have suffered injustice does not manifest itself in a
patronizing or condescending attitude to their work? I offer some
reflections on the challenge of appreciating African American music. My
central example is the song, "Joe Turner’s Blues."