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College of Arts and Sciences

Faculty and Staff

Beth Krizek

Title: Professor
Department: Biological Sciences
College of Arts and Sciences
Phone: 803-777-1876
Office: PSC, Room 716
Resources: Department of Biological Sciences
Beth Krizek


The transformation of a small group of pluripotent floral stem cells into a flower, with a characteristic arrangement of different organ types, is a complex process involving coordinated cellular behaviors and broad morphological changes. Molecular genetic approaches have uncovered many genes involved in these developmental events but it remains unclear how gene regulatory networks act in spatially and temporally defined mannners to regulate the different aspects of floral organogenesis. We know very little about early steps of floral organogenesis such as the mechanisms controlling the positioning of floral organ initiation within the flower primordium as well as later stages during which cell growth, division and differentiation are integrated to give rise to an organ with a characteristic morphology and function. We have been studying the roles of a family of AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE (AIL) transcription factors in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. AIL proteins are key regulators of several aspects of floral organ organogenesis including floral organ initiation, identity specification, growth and patterning.


Han, H., and Krizek, B.A. 2016. AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 can functionally replace AINTEGUMENTA but alters Arabidopsis flower development when misexpressed at high levels. Plant Mol. Biol. 92, 597-612.

Krizek, B.A., Bequette, C.J., Xu, K., Blakley, I.C., Fu, Z.Q., Stratmann, J.W. and Loraine, A.E. 2016. RNA-Seq links the transcription factors AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 to cell wall remodeling and plant defense pathways in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 171, 2069-2084.

Yamaguchi, N. Jeong, C.W., Nole-Wilson, S., Krizek, B.A. and Wagner, D. 2016. AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6/PLETHORA3 induce LEAFY expression in response to auxin to promote the onset of flower formation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 170, 283-293.

Krizek, B.A. 2015. Intronic sequences are required for AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 expression in Arabidopsis flowers. BMC Res. Notes 8, 556.

Krizek, B.A. 2015. AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE genes have partly overlapping functions with AINTEGUMENTA but make distinct contributions to Arabidopsis thaliana flower development. J. Exp. Bot. 66, 4537-4549.

Mudunkothge, J.S., and Krizek, B.A. 2014. The GUS reporter system in flower development. Methods Mol. Biol. 1110, 295-304.

Krizek, B.A.and Anderson, J.T. 2013. Control of flower size. J. Exp. Bot. 64, 1427-1437.

Yamaguchi, N., Wu, M.F., Winter, C.M., Berns, M.C., Nole-Wilson, S., Yamaguchi, A., Coupland, G., Krizek, B.A., and Wagner, D. 2013. A molecular framework for auxin-mediated initiation of flower primordia. Dev. Cell 24, 271-282.

Mudunkothge, J.S. and Krizek, B.A.. 2012. Three Arabidopsis AIL/PLT genes act in combination to regulate shoot apical meristem function. Plant J. 71, 108-121.

Krizek, B.A. and Eaddy, M.. 2012. AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 regulates cellular differentiation in flowers. Plant Mol Biol. 78:199-209.

Krizek, B.A.. 2011. Aintegumenta and Aintegumenta-Like6 regulate auxin-mediated flower development in Arabidopsis. BMC Res Notes. 4:176.

Krizek, B.A.. 2011. Auxin regulation of Arabidopsis flower development involves members of the AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE/PLETHORA (AIL/PLT) family. J Exp Bot. 62:3311-3319.

Krizek, B.A.. 2009. AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 act redundantly to regulate Arabidopsis floral growth and patterning. Plant Physiol. 150:1916-1929.

Krizek, B.A.. 2009. Making bigger plants: key regulators of final organ size. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 12:17-22.

Nole-Wilson, S. and Krizek, B.A.. 2006. AINTEGUMENTA contributes to organ polarity and regulates growth of lateral organs in combination with YABBY genes. Plant Physiol. 141, 977-987.

Krizek, B.A. and Sulli, C.. 2006. Mapping sequences required for nuclear localization and the transcriptional activation function of the Arabidopsis protein AINTEGUMENTA. Planta. 224:612-621.

Krizek, B.A., Lewis, M.W. and Fletcher, J.C.. 2006. RABBIT EARS is a second-whorl repressor of AGAMOUS that maintains spatial boundaries in Arabidopsis flowers. Plant J. 45:369-383.

Nole-Wilson, S., Tranby, T.L., and Krizek, B.A.. 2005. AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) genes are expressed in young tissues and may specify meristematic or division-competent states. Plant Mol Biol. 57:613-628.