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College of Hospitality, Retail and Sport Management


Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel and Tourism Industry Center

Research and Publications

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Publications - Harrill

Peer-Reviewed Journal Publications

Peterson, R.R., Cardenas, D., and Harrill, R. Research Note: Tourism as a Catalyst for Economic Development in Latin America: Setting an Agenda for Policy and Research, Tourism Analysis, 19, 117-122. 2014.

Dioko, L.A.N., So, S-I., Harrill, R. Hotel Category Switching Behavior—Evidence of Mobility, Statis or Loyalty? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 234-244. 2013.

Draper, J., Oh, C., and Harrill, R. Preferences for Heritage Tourism Development Using a Choice Experiment Approach. Tourism Analysis, 17 (6): 747-759. 2013.

Harrill, R., and Peterson, R. Research Note: Tourism Conventional Wisdom and the News Media. Tourism Analysis 17 (6): 813-817. 2013.

Chengting, L., Li, X. and Harrill, R. Chinese Outbound Tourist Perceived Constraints to Visiting the United States. Tourism Management, 37, 136-146. 2013.

He, L., Li, X.Harrill, R., and Cardon, P. Examining Japanese Tourist U.S.-Bound Travel Constraints. Current Issues in Tourism. Accepted, published online.

Dioko, L., Harrill, R., and Cardon, P. The Wit and Wisdom of Chinese Tour Guides: A Critical Tourism Perspective. Journal of China Research 9 (1): 27-49. 2013.

Harrill, R., Dioko, D., and Peterson, R. The Contemporary International Social Science Research Center: Guidelines for Effective Management. Journal of Higher Education Management, 27 (1): 21-39. 2012.

Bernthal, M., Nagel, M., Harrill, R. and Riner, P. All Work and No Play Makes Jack a Dull Boy: An Exploration of Business Travelers' Attendance at Live, Ticketed Entertainment Events. Tourism Analysis. 17 (2), 213-224. 2012.

Brooke, B., Li, R., Meng, F. and Harrill, R. Applying Causal Mapping to Tourism Research: A Case Study of American College Students' Experiences in China Study Abroad Programs. Tourism Analysis, 17 (1), 1-14. 2012.

Li, R., L., Chengting, L., Harrill, R., Kline, S. and Wang, L. When East Meets West: An Exploratory Study on Chinese Outbound Tourists' Travel Expectations. Tourism Management, 32: 741-749. 2011.

Harrill, R., Uysal, M., Cardon, P., Vong, F. and Dioko, D. Resident Attitudes toward Gaming and Tourism Development in Macao: Growth Machine Theory as a Context for Identifying Supporters and Opponents. International Journal of Tourism Research, 13 (1), 41-53. 2011.

Li, R.Harrill, R., Uysal, M., Burnett, T. and Zhan, Z. Estimating the Size of the Chinese Outbound Market: A Demand-Side Approach. Tourism Management, 31: 250-259. 2010.

Dioko, L., Harrill, R., and Cardon, P. Brand China: Tour Guide Perceptions and Implications for Destination Branding and Marketing. Tourism Analysis, 15 (3), 345-355. 2010.

Wang, S., Bickle, M. and Harrill, R. Residents' Attitudes toward Tourism Development in Shandong, China. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4 (4): 327-339. 2010.

Harrill, R. Going Beyond Sun, Sand and Surf? An Importance-Performance Analysis of Activities in a 3S Resort Destination. e-Review of Tourism Research, 8 (4) 57-68. 2010.

Zhang, X., Cai, L. and Harrill, R. Research Note: Rural Tourism Research in China: 1997-2006. Tourism Analysis, 14 (2): 231-239. 2009.

Siracaya-Turk, E., Ingram, L. and Harrill, R. Resident Typologies within the Integrative Paradigm of Sustaincentric Tourism Development. Tourism Analysis, 13 (6): 531-544. 2009.

Harrill, R. and Bender, B. From Sales Tool to Site Development: The Evolution of Destination Marketing on the Web. Tourism Analysis, 13: 295-307. 2008.

Harrill, R. and Bender, B. State Tourism Funding: Equity, Consensus and Accountability Models. Tourism Analysis, 12 (4): 287-298. 2007.

Harrill, R. Residents' Attitudes toward Tourism Development: A Literature Review with Implications for Tourism Planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 18 (3): 251-266. 2004.

Harrill, R. and Potts, T.D. Tourism Planning in Historic Districts: Attitudes Toward Tourism Development in Charleston. Journal of the American Planning Association, 69 (3): 233-244. 2003.

Harrill, R. Fear of Falling: An Ethnography Study of Heritage Tourism in Pineburg, South Carolina. Tourism Analysis, 7 (3, 4): 241-250. 2003.

Harrill, R. and Potts, T.D. The Social Psychology of Tourist Motivation: Exploration, Debate and Transition. Tourism Analysis, 7 (2): 105-114. 2002.

Harrill, R. Political Ecology and Planning Theory. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 19 (1): 67-75. 1999.

Potts, T.D. and Harrill, R. Enhancing Communities for Sustainability: A Travel Ecology Approach. Tourism Analysis, 3 (3, 4): 133-142. 1998.

Editorial Review

Dioko, L. and Harrill, R. Affirmation, Assimilation and Anarchy: Critical Undercurrents in Destination Branding. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5 (3): 215-226. 2011.

Bickle, M.C. and Harrill, R. Avoiding Cultural Misconceptions during Globalization of Tourism: Introduction to 2010 Special Issue. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4 (4): 283-286. 2010.

Woodside, A., Crotts, J. and Harrill, R. Integrating multidisciplinary perspectives: An editorial. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1 (1): 5-13. 2007.

Books

Harrill, R. Guide to Best Practices in Southern Tourism and Destination Management. Washington, DC: Southern Governors' Association. 2006.

Harrill, R. Fundamentals of Destination Management and Marketing. Editor. Lansing, MI: Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association. 2005.

Harrill, R. Guide to Best Practices in Tourism and Destination Management: Volume II. Lansing, MI: Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association. 2005.

Harrill, R. Guide to Best Practices in Tourism and Destination Management. Lansing, MI: Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association. 2003.

Book Chapters

Uysal, M., Harrill, R. and Woo, E. Destination Marketing Research: Issues and Challenges. In Tourism Destination Marketing and Management: Foundations and Applications. Youcheng Wang and Abraham Pizam, eds. London: CABI. 2011.

Harrill, R. Destination Management: New Challenges, New Needs. In Handbook of Tourism Studies. Jamal, T. and Robinson, M. eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 2009.

Harrill, R. Fables of the Reconstruction or Reconstruction of the Fables? Pragmatic Aesthetics for Advancing Tourism, Culture, Place and Community. In Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, Volume 1. Woodside A., ed. London: Elsevier. 2007.

Harrill, R. Moving Forward with Destination Management (Preface). In Fundamentals of Destination Management and Marketing. Lansing, MI: Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association. 2005.

Harrill, R. About the International Association of Convention and Visitors Bureaus (IACVB). In Fundamentals of Destination Management and Marketing. Lansing, MI: Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association. 2005.

Potts, T.D. and Harrill, R. Travel Ecology and Developing Naturally: Making Practice-Theory Connections. In Sustainable Tourism: A Global Perspective. Harris, R., Griffin, T. and Williams, P., eds. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann. 2002.

Harrill, R. New Town: Comparing British and European Models. In Geographic and Planning Research Themes for the New Millennium. (Feschrift for Dr. Ashok Dutt). Noble, A.G., ed. New Delhi, India: Vikas Publishing. 2000.

Harrill, R. Urban Planning and Social Ecology: Philosophy, Literature and Convergence. 2000. In Preserving the Legacy: Concepts in Support of Sustainability. Costa, F.J. and Noble, A.G., eds. New York: Lexington Books. 1999.

Harrill, R. Beyond Sustainability: Bioregionalism and Bioregional Planning. In Preserving the Legacy: Concepts in Support of Sustainability. Costa, F.J. and Noble, A.G., eds., New York: Lexington Books. 1999.

Selected Grants, Contracts and Consulting

University of South Carolina

Harrill, R., and Li, X. The Future Outbound Chinese Tourism Market to the United States ($170,208). Sponsor: U.S. Travel Association/U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries/Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel and Tourism Industry Center.

Li, X., and Harrill, R. An Evaluation of the Japanese Outbound Tourism Market. ($104,997). Sponsor: U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries/Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel and Tourism Industry Center.

Harrill, R., Li, X., Brown, M., and Nagel, M. A Development and Economic Impact Study of the South Carolina National Heritage Corridor. ($99,000). Sponsor: South Carolina National Heritage Corridor/South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism/Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel and Tourism Industry Center.

Turk, E., Kline, S., and Harrill, R. Brand America: Understanding Tourism Images and Quality Expectations of Travelers. ($90,000). Sponsor: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel and Tourism Industry Center.

Li, X., and Harrill, R. Establishing a Japan Travel Trade Barometer. A project monitoring Japanese visitation to the United States. ($75,000). Sponsor: U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries.

Harrill, R., Li, X., Brown, M., and Nagel, M. Development of a Comprehensive and Systematic Plan for Management, Branding, and Sustainability of South Carolina's Four National Byways. ($60,000). Sponsor: South Carolina National Heritage Corridor/Duke Energy.

Harrill, R., Brown, M., and Bernthal, M. The Cost Effectiveness of Exhibition Participation. ($50,990). Sponsor: Center for Exhibition Industry Research/Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel and Tourism Industry Center.

Harrill, R., Brown, M., and Nagel, M., and Cardon, P. Center for Exhibition Industry Research: CEIR Index 2010 Edition. ($46,000). Sponsor: Center of Exhibition Industry Research.

Li, X., Feng, M., and Harrill, R. ($41,524). Sponsor: Shanghai Resort Development Corporation/College of Hospitality, Retail, and Sport Management.

Harrill, R., Cardenas, D., DiPietro, R., Li, X. ($35,000). Toward a World-Class International Destination Airport for Curacao. Sponsor: Curacao Airport Holdings, NV.

Harrill, R., Brown, M., Ballouli, K., Li, X. A Comprehensive Visitor Profile, Economic Impact and Destination Image Study for Patriots Point and the USS Yorktown 2014. ($32,000). Sponsor: Patriots Point Development Authority.

Harrill, R., Brown, M., Ballouli, K., Li, X. A Comprehensive Visitor Profile, Economic Impact and Destination Image Study for Patriots Point and the USS Yorktown 2013. ($32,000). Sponsor: Patriots Point Development Authority.

Li, X., and Harrill, R. American Baby Boomers' Travel Behavior and Destination Preferences in China. ($30,000). Sponsor: China National Tourism Administration.

Harrill, R., and Li, X. A Strategic Tourism Plan for the Salkehatchie Region. ($30,000). Sponsor: Western Carolina Higher Education Commission/U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Harrill, R. Best Practices in Southern Tourism and Destination Management. ($27,000). Sponsor: Southern Governors' Association.

Harrill, R. A Feasibility Study for Open Studio Development in Olde Town Conyers, Georgia. ($21,000). Sponsor: Conyers-Rockdale Economic Development Council.

Harrill, R. A Strategic Tourism Development and Marketing Plan for Kershaw County. ($20,000). Sponsor: Kershaw County Administrators Office.

Harrill, R. and Carpenter, J. A Tourism Marketing Plan for the Salkehatchie Region. ($20,000). Sponsor: Western Carolina Higher Education Commission/U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Harrill, R. Tourism, Innovation, Creativity, and Growth: Growing Aruba's Knowledge Economy—Consulting and Teaching. ($15,000). Sponsor: University of Aruba, Faculty of Hospitality and Tourism Management.

Harrill, R., and Brown, M. Center for Exhibition Industry Research: CEIR Index 2009 Edition. ($15,000). Sponsor: Center for Exhibition Industry Research.

Harrill, R., and Brown, M. Center for Exhibition Industry Research: CEIR Index 2009 Edition. ($15,000). Sponsor: Center for Exhibition Industry Research.

Harrill, R. 2012 Punta Cana International Airport Tourist, Aircrew, and Real Estate Report. ($11,800). Sponsor: Grupo Punta Cana.

Li., X., and Harrill, R. Examining the Antecedents of Tourism Destination Loyalty: The Case of South Carolina. ($9,950). Sponsor: South Carolina Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism/University of South Carolina College of Hospitality, Retail, and Sport Management.

Harrill, R. Exploring Travel and Tourism as Catalyst for Global Economic Development, Corporate Investment, and Technological Innovation. ($8,998). Sponsor: University of Pittsburgh, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Center for Industry Studies.

Harrill, R. Aligning State, Regional, and Local Tourism Marketing in Pennsylvania: Analysis and Policy Recommendations. ($8,000). Sponsor: Pennsylvania Tourism Office.

Xi, L., and Harrill, R. American Tour Operators' Perception of China as a Tourism Destination. ($5,000). Sponsor: University of South Carolina/College of Hospitality, Retail, and Sport Management.

Harrill, R. 2011 Punta Cana International Airport Tourist and Aircrew Survey. ($4,565). Sponsor: Grupo Punta Cana.

Harrill, R. Tourism and Economic Development: Columbia South Carolina's Top Visitor Inquiry Segments. ($4,500). Sponsor: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel and Tourism Industry Center.

Cardon, P., and Harrill, R. Soldiers' and Family Satisfaction with Graduation Family Day at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. ($4,500). Sponsor: Fort Jackson/U.S. Army/Department of Defense.

Harrill, R. Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Travel Grant. ($4,450). Sponsor: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

Harrill, R. 2010 Punta Cana International Airport Tourist and Aircrew Survey. ($4,038). Sponsor: Grupo Punta Cana.

Ballouli, K., Koesters, T., and Harrill, R. Assessment of Patriots Point Overnight Camping Services and Consumers. ($4,000). Sponsor: Patriots Point Development Authority.

Harrill, R. South Carolina Arts Commission Cultural Tourism Initiative. ($2,000). Sponsor: South Carolina Arts Commission.

Georgia Tech

Harrill, R. Best Practices in Tourism and Destination Management. ($70,000). Sponsor: U.S. Economic Development Administration.

Wilkins, J., and Harrill, R. Accelerating Economic Development Innovation within Four USDA Champion Communities in Georgia: Clay, Quitman, Randolph, and Stewart Counties. ($50,000). U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Wilkins, J., and Harrill, R. Fannin County Economic Development Feasibility Assessment and Strategic Plan for Sustainable Economic Development. ($50,000). Sponsor: One Georgia.

Harrill, R. A Feasibility Study for the Golden Isles Parkway. ($35,000). Sponsor: Georgia Rural Economic Development Center.

Harrill, R. A Feasibility Study for the Woodpecker Trail. ($27,000). Sponsor: Georgia Rural Economic Development Center.

Harrill, R. Fundamentals of Destination Management and Marketing. ($27,000). Sponsor: Destination Marketing Association International (DMAI).

Harrill, R. A Market Segmentation and Targeting Study for the Lower Chattahoochee Region. ($25,832). Sponsor: One Georgia Authority.

Harrill, R. Georgia's Lake Hartwell Region: Opportunities for Further Tourism Development. ($25,000). Sponsor: One Georgia Authority.

Harrill, R. A Feasibility Study for the Arabia Mountain National Heritage Area. ($25,000). Sponsor: Arabia Mountain National Heritage Area.

Harrill, R. A Feasibility Study for the Heard-Chattahoochee Greenway. ($21,000). Sponsor: Heard County Development Authority.

Harrill, R. Lower Chattahoochee Region Tourism Workshops. ($20,000). Sponsor: Lower Chattahoochee Regional Development Center.

Bihu, W. (Peking University), and Harrill, R. ($2,000). Tourism and Urban Design Recommendations for Hangzhou (China) Grand Canal. Sponsor: Hangzhou Tourism Commission.

Publications - Li

Chengting, L., Li, X. and Harrill, R. Chinese Outbound Tourist Perceived Constraints to Visiting the United States. Tourism Management. Accepted, in press.

He, L., Li, X., Harrill, R. and Cardon, P. Examining Japanese tourists' U.S.-bound travel constraints. Current Issues in Tourism. (Accepted, not yet in print).

Li, X., Cheng, C-K., Kim, H., and Li, X. Positioning USA in the Chinese outbound travel market. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. (Accepted, not yet in print).

Stepchenkova, S. and Li, X. Chinese outbound tourists' destination image of America: Part II. Journal of Travel Research. (Accepted, not yet in print).

Li, X. and Kaplanidou, K. The impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on China's destination brand: A U.S.-based examination. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. (Accepted, not yet in print).

Li, X., Meng, F., Uysal, M. and Mihalik, B. Understanding the Chinese long-haul outbound travel market: An overlapped segmentation approach. Journal of Business Research. (Accepted, not yet in print).

Li, X. (2012). Examining the "relative image" of tourism destinations: A case study. Current Issues in Tourism. 15(8). 741-757.

Bliss, B., Li, X., Meng, F. and Harrill, R. (2012). Applying causal mapping to tourist research: A case study of American college students' experiences in china study abroad programs. Tourism Analysis. 17(1). 1-14.

Li, X. and Stepchenkova, S. (2012). Chinese outbound tourists' destination image of America: Part I. Journal of Travel Research. 51(3). 250-266.

Hudson, S. and Li, X. (2012). Domestic medical tourism: A neglected dimension of medical tourism research. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management. 21(3). 227-246.

Zhong, S., Zhang, J., Li, X. (2011). A reformulated directional bias of tourist flow: An analysis of domestic travel of rural residents in China. Tourism Geographies. 13(1). 129-147.

Li, X., Lai, C. Harrill, R., Kline, S. and Wang, L. (2011). When East meets West: An exploratory study on Chinese outbound tourists' travel expectations. Tourism Management. 32(4). 741-749.

Pan, B. and Li, X. (2011). The long tail of destination image and online marketing. Annals of Tourism Research. 38(1). 132-152.

Cheng, C.-K., Li, X., Petrick, J. F., and O'Leary, J. T. (2011). An examination of tourism journal development. Tourism Management. 32(1). 53-61.

Li, X. (2010). Loyalty regardless of brands? Examining three non-performance effects on brand loyalty in a tourism context. Journal of Travel Research. 49(3). 323-336.

Hung, K., Li, X., Pan, B., and Petrick, J. (2010). Knowledge dissemination in tourism education: A case of tourism marketing. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. 27(5). 519–532.

Li, X., and Petrick, J. (2010). Towards an integrative model of loyalty formation: The role of quality and value. Leisure Sciences. 32(3). 201-221. (Lead article).

Li, X., and Petrick, J. (2010). Revisiting the commitment-loyalty distinction in a cruising context. Journal of Leisure Research. 42(1). 67-90.

Li, X., Harrill, R., Uysal, M., Burnett, T., and Zhan, X. (2010). Estimating the size of the Chinese outbound travel market: A demand-side approach. Tourism Management. 31(2). 250-259.*

Zhang, L., Pan, B., Smith, W. W., and Li, X. (2009). An exploratory study of travelers' use of online reviews and recommendations: A qualitative study. Information Technology and Tourism. 11(2). 157-167.

Smith, W. W., Pan, B., Li, X., and Zhang, L. (2009). Conceptualizing the impact of geographic knowledge on trip planningTourism Geographies. 11(3). 350-368.

Li, X., Pan, B., Zhang, L. and Smith, W. W. (2009). The effect of online information search on image development: Insights from a mixed method studyJournal of Travel Research. 48(1). 45-57.

Denizci, B., and Li, X. (2009). Linking marketing efforts to financial outcome: An exploratory study in tourism and hospitality contexts. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research. 33(2). 211-226. * Both authors contributed equally to the article. The authors' names appear in alphabetical order.

Li, X., and Petrick, J. (2008). Reexamining the dimensionality of brand loyalty: The case of the cruise industryJournal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. 25(1). 68-85.

Li, X., and Petrick, J. (2008). Examining the antecedents of brand loyalty from an investment model perspectiveJournal of Travel Research. 47(1). 25-34.

Li, X., Petrick, J. and Zhou, Y. (2008). Towards a conceptual framework of tourists' destination knowledge and loyaltyJournal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism. 8(3). 79-96.

Li, X., and Petrick, J. (2008). Tourism marketing in an era of paradigm shiftJournal of Travel Research. 46(3). 235-244.

Li, X., Cheng, C-K., Kim, H., and Petrick, J. (2008). A systematic comparison of first-time and repeat visitors via a two-phase online surveyTourism Management. 29(2). 278-293.

Pan, B., Li, X., Zhang, L., and Smith, W. (2007). An exploratory study on the satisfaction and barriers of online trip planning to China: American college students' experienceJournal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing. 16 (1/2). 203-226.

Petrick, J., Li, X., and Park, S. (2007). Cruise passengers' decision-making processesJournal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. 23(1). 1-14.

Li, X., and Petrick, J. (2007). Benchmarking destinations via DMO websites: A methodological processTourism Analysis. 12(4). 271-285.

Li, X., and Petrick, J. (2006). A review of festival and event motivation studiesEvent Management. 9(4). 239-245. (Research Note).

Li, X., and Vogelsong, H. (2006). Comparing methods of measuring image change: A case study of a small-scale community festival. Tourism Analysis. 10(4). 349-360.